What a glittering diamond and pencil have in common? A very hard diamond and graphite from the tip of a very soft pencil. These two different substances contain evidence of the beautiful creation called carbon.
Rough, rough diamond is the hardest of all minerals. (1) For this reason, a diamond crystal is used for cutting and drilling all kinds of materials and also used as an abrasive to smooth the surface. (2)
Violence is the scratch resistance of minerals to outside forces, but easy to recognize by the nature of this mineral. By scratching one mineral with another, their relative hardness can be determined. The scientists use a points system to select the violence of all minerals. They assess the diamond with the highest ratio of ten more ten. So, what makes diamonds so hard?
It is interesting that the soft, breakable graphite in the pencil consists of the same atoms as a diamond. Graphite consists of carbon atoms as a diamond. But, while one who is very gentle, others very difficult. One is as a black lump of charcoal, others may be sparkling bright. One is commonly found in nature, others rarely. For all these reasons, the diamond much more valuable than graphite. How then, that the carbon atoms can be so different from one another?
Carbon: Life Foundation
(The Value of Diamonds is defined by the Atom)
Before we consider these differences, we must talk about the carbon atoms that form a diamond. Carbon atom is essential for living things. Nevil Sidgwick, English chemist, states as follows in his book, Chemical elements and their compounds:
Carbon is unique among elements in the number and variety of compounds that can be formed. More than a quarter million have been isolated and described, but this gives a very imperfect idea of power, because it is the basis of all forms of material life. (3)
Class of compounds formed exclusively from carbon and hydrogen called hydrocarbons. This is a large family of compounds that includes natural gas, liquid oil, kerosene, and lubricants. Hydrocarbons ethylene and propylene form the basis of the petrochemical industry. Hydrocarbons such as benzene, toluene, and turpentine are familiar to anyone who has worked with the paint. The naphthalene that protects our clothes from moths is another hydrocarbon. Hydrocarbons in combination with chlorine or fluorine form of anesthesia, which is a chemical used in fire extinguishers and the Freon used in refrigeration.
As one can see, carbon is very important; it is what makes the diamond a rare mineral. Diamonds do not have a competitor to become the best examples of crystalline structures in the world. Carbon atoms that give a diamond crystal has a hardness ideal geometric design. Graphite was also formed from carbon atoms but not ordered as in diamond. Scientists describe this difference by allotropy world.
The difference, in the arrangement of space, the atoms that form the structure of an element called allotropy. Atomic allotrope structures called atoms. We can explain this by the following examples:
Imagine that we have bought three more than 10,000 bricks each and that all these brinks identical to each other. We’ve sent this brinks three different stonemason who will each build a wall to their own design independently of the others.
-Are the walls are identical?
-Do they all have the same robustness?
-Does artistic brick structure similar?
If the answer to this question is yes, the wall will not allotropic.
If the answer to these questions is no, we can call allotropic wall.
Oxygen and ozone are allotropes of oxygen atoms.
Diamond, graphite, and amorph carbon allotropes of carbon atoms.
White phosphorus and red phosphorus are allotropes of phosphorus atoms.
Rhombic sulfur and sulfur sulfur allotropes monocline.
Atom Allotrope Characteristics:
- Atom and the same atomic number.
- Different geometry of their molecules.
- They have a distinct tendency to enter into chemical reactions, but the compounds formed by such reactions is the same.
- A different molecular sturdiness.
Some physical characteristics of diamond and graphite has been described as follows:
All the qualities that give diamonds their value associated with the condition that occurred during their formation. For the formation of natural diamonds, excessive heat and pressure required. Diamonds formed deep in the earth’s crust. Diamond pieces can melt erupted to the surface and freeze but this happens very rarely. This is the reason why there are very few diamond deposits in the world and why the number is very small rich deposits.
Nature and structure of diamond formation scientists have shown how to produce artificial diamonds. Diamonds have been produced in experiments in which graphite has been 100 thousand atmospheric pressure at 3000 degrees of heat. However, synthetic diamonds are not valuable as natural, but because of their violence, they are used as industrial abrasives.
Where Diamonds are Used:
Three Types of Diamond:
1.) Original Diamond: This is the original, valuable diamond. They are measured in karats. One carat equals 0.205 grams. They are used as jewelry.
2.) Bort: A semi-transparent and striated diamond. More difficult than the original diamond and was used to carve high quality diamonds. In the drilling industry, diamond is used for drilling.
3.) Carbonado: This is a black, diamond uncarved. More difficult than the original diamond and was used in the manufacture of drilling equipment.
As Sidgwick has shown, carbon atoms, which is only six protons, six neutrons and six electrons are real / true miracle. The fact that the difference between the atoms in the settings to produce the differences that generate possibilities such an extraordinary human being is enough to understand that this information comes from the grace of God. Like any evidence in the nature of creation, God has created carbon and diamond with all their properties.
What is in the heavens and the earth belongs to God. Allah encompasses all things. (The Qur’an, 4:126)
Structural Carbon Atom
Low High Melting Point
Molecular circuits Straight Straight
Hardness Hard Soft
Light permeability permeable to impermeable
1 L. Vlasanov & D. Trifonov, 107 stories About Chemistry, Mir Publishers, 1977.
Nevil V. 3 Sidgwick, The Chemical Elements and their Compounds, vol.1, Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1950, s.490
Written by nuyya
tags: diamonds, Hardest, Mineral